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NEPAD – Investing in agriculture and food security in Africa

Organization(s):

AU/CAADP/NEPAD

Country (ies):

African Countries

Overview:

CAADP focuses on improving food security, nutrition, and increasing incomes in Africa's largely farming based economies. It aims to do this by raising agricultural productivity by at least 6% per year and increasing public investment in agriculture to 10% of national budgets per year. CAADP is about bringing together diverse key players - at the continental, regional and national levels - to improve co-ordination, to share knowledge, successes and failures, to encourage one another, and to promote joint and separate efforts to achieve the CAADP goals.

Background:

CAADP is the agricultural programme of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), which in turn is a programme of the African Union (AU). Established by the AU assembly in 2003. CAADP aims to help African countries reach a higher path of economic growth through agriculture-led development. Through NEPAD, CAADP addresses policy and capacity issues across the entire agricultural sector and African continent. CAADP is entirely African-led and African-owned and represents African leaders' collective vision for agriculture in Africa. This ambitious and comprehensive vision for agricultural reform in Africa aims for an average annual growth rate of 6 percent in agriculture by 2015.

By 2015, African leaders hope to see:

-Dynamic agricultural markets within countries and between regions in Africa;
-Farmers taking part in the market economy and enjoying good access to markets so that Africa, capitalising on its comparative and competitive advantages, becomes a net exporter of agricultural products;
-A more equitable distribution of wealth for rural populations - in terms of higher real incomes and relative wealth. Rural populations will have more equitable access to land, physical and financial resources, and knowledge, information and technology for sustainable development;
-Africa as a strategic player in agricultural science and technology, meeting the growing needs and demands of African agriculture; and
-Environmentally sound agricultural production and a culture of sustainable management of natural resources as a result of better knowledge, more information and the application of technology.

Overall, CAADP's goal is to eliminate hunger and reduce poverty through agriculture. To do this, African governments have agreed to increase public investment in agriculture by a minimum of 10 per cent of their national budgets and to raise agricultural productivity by at least 6 per cent.

The CAADP Pillars are CAADP's four key focus areas for agricultural improvement and investment. Each pillar is headed by a different pillar leader. These four key pillars 'Sustainable Land and Water Management'; 'Market Access'; 'Food Supply and Hunger'; and 'Agricultural Research'. Each pillar oversees various programmes working to achieve CAADP's goals.

Implementation:

The NEPAD Secretariat coordinates CAADP. Overall, CAADP's aspires to eliminate hunger and reduce poverty through agriculture. To do this, African governments have agreed to increase public investment in agriculture by a minimum of 10 per cent of their national budgets and to raise agricultural productivity by at least 6 per cent. This is done through CAADP's strategic functions, regional and economic communities, national roundtables and four key Pillars.

The four CAADP Pillars
Pillar 1 - Extending the area under sustainable land management
Pillar 2 - Improving rural infrastructure and trade-related capacities for market access
Pillar 3 - Increasing food supply and reducing hunger
Pillar 4 - Agricultural research, technology dissemination and adoption
Strategic functions

NEPAD coordinates CAADP through five strategic functions.

1. Promote CAADP principles
NEPAD promotes CAADP principles in CAADP implementation processes and investment programmes. NEPAD helps countries to adapt the CAADP principles, operationalise the pillar frameworks, and use the CAADP roundtable processes. To do this NEPAD leverages technical expertise, supports Regional Economic Communities, and strengthens links with other NEPAD units.

2. Manage communication and information
NEPAD manages communication and information to support the implementation of the CAADP Agenda and partnerships. NEPAD collects and shares information on processes and tools. Some of the ways this will be done are by establishing a knowledge database and through public information campaigns (local and international) to raise awareness of what CAADP is doing and the changes it is bringing about. 3. Facilitate and coordinate monitoring and evaluation
NEPAD facilitates and coordinates monitoring and evaluation. This includes assessing impact and facilitating the sharing of lessons and peer review. NEPAD captures and shares key lessons through peer review and joint assessment. This also means evaluating the impact of the CAADP agenda on NEPAD national and continental development objectives.

4. Link resources with programmes
NEPAD builds partnerships and coalitions to link resources with agricultural investment programmes. Strong international and regional partnerships are vital for the success of CAADP. NEPAD is stepping up work to mobilise resources.

5. Harness key thinking and experience
NEPAD harnesses key thinking and experience on emerging national, international and global issues related to agriculture, to articulate African perspectives and contribute to the evolution of the CAADP Agenda. NEPAD makes sure that up-to-date information on trends in African agriculture and rural development is easily available both locally and internationally. NEPAD directs strategic information about developments affecting CAADP to all stakeholders.

CAADP Multi-donor Trust Fund
Since CAADP emerged in 2003, development partners have worked together closely to support its processes and the development of the CAADP Pillars. This collaborative effort has resulted in a significant harmonisation of donor support for CAADP activities and investment programmes.

NEPAD, the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and the African Union (AU), together with a number of donors and African governments, worked to further harmonise support. The result is the CAADP Multi-donor Trust Fund, hosted at the World Bank. This will channel financial support to CAADP processes and investments.

In brief, the CAADP Multi-donor Trust Fund is a flexible yet systematic, efficient and reliable way to:
-Harmonise priorities
-Allow economies of scale
-Increase the efficiency and effectiveness of financial resources
-Target specific gaps in financing, capacity and technology
-Facilitate partnerships and coalition building among African institutions, partners and donors
-Complement existing resources mobilised around CAADP Pillars and other thematic priorities

Outcomes:

Since CAADP emerged in 2003, development partners have worked together closely to support its processes and the development of the CAADP Pillars. This collaborative effort has resulted in a significant harmonisation of donor support for CAADP activities and investment programmes.

Pillar 1: Land & water management
Pillar 1 aims to extend the area under sustainable land management and reliable water control systems. The vision and framework Partnerships for sustainable land and water management (SLWM) has resulted in Mobilization of US$150 million, leveraging US$1 billion, and CAADP country roundtables.

Progress so far:

TerrAfrica: Under Pillar 1, the TerrAfrica Initiative has mobilised US$1 billion for investment in country programmes for sustainable land and water management through the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Strategic Investment Programme. Initially, GEF provided US$150 million; a further US$900 million was invested by the Initiative. The design of country programmes and disbursement of funds is already under way.

Conservation agriculture: In 2008, the Norwegian Government committed US$4 million in response to the high food prices, but with a special focus on conservation agriculture. This is being used in a joint NEPAD-FAO programme (2008-10) to scale up the adoption of conservation agriculture in Southern Africa. It aims to reach 23,700 rural households. Farmers in Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland and Zimbabwe have been trained and given improved seed varieties and appropriate technologies such as the jab planter and planting basin methods. Women and children are key targets of the programme, which in 2010 will be extended to Eastern Africa.

Water and irrigation: Under Pillar 1, NEPAD coordinates, aligns and manages knowledge initiatives across the continent. An initiative to address regional constraints to scaling up investments in irrigation development was launched. Here NEPAD focused on ensuring that regional resource mobilisation directly supports country CAADP processes.

Pillar 2: Market access
Pillar 2 aims to increase market access through improved rural infrastructure and other trade-related interventions
Pillar 2 objectives

The objectives of Pillar 2 are to:
-Accelerate growth in the agricultural sector by raising the capacities of private entrepreneurs (including commercial and small-holder farmers) to meet the increasingly complex quality and logistic requirements of markets, focusing on selected agricultural commodities that offer the potential to raise rural (on- and off-farm) incomes.

-Create the required regulatory and policy framework that would facilitate the emergence of regional economic spaces that would spur the expansion of regional trade and cross-country investments.

Pillar 2 strategy
Improve local infrastructure so that African farmers have better connections to markets, addressing issues including:
-transportation, (road, rail, marine and air freight)
-storage, packaging and handling systems
-retail facilities
-information technology, and overall supply chains.
-Improve competitiveness through sound trade policies at the national, regional and continental level.
-Strengthen capacity to participate in trade negotiations and meet market access requirements for world trade (quality, grades and standards, etc.).

-Strengthen capacities among the agribusiness community and facilitate business partnerships with importing companies.
-Build strategic alliances to create industry-to-industry linkages and expand domestic and foreign direct investment in agriculture.

Progress so far:

In Pillar 2 work is going ahead on the vision and framework simultaneously. The Secretariat has facilitated and coordinated the final technical review and validation processes for the CAADP. Pillar 2 Framework (June 2008) on increasing market access through improved infrastructure and trade-related interventions. The framework is ready for widespread distribution and will have to take the due process for political endorsement by the AU Heads of State and Government.

Fertilizer Programme: Following up on the Abuja Declaration, NEPAD has worked closely with the African Union Commission and the African Development Bank to establish the Africa Fertilizer Financing Mechanism. Already over US$35 million has been mobilised and will be directed to countries through country roundtable processes.

Regional trade: Facilitation programmes are currently being funded in the COMESA and ECOWAS regions to promote the integration of regional markets and raise the competitiveness of local products in these markets.

Other initiatives: The UK's Research into Use Programme recently launched the African Enterprise Challenge Fund to finance agribusiness joint ventures and other business-to-business alliances. The US African Growth and Opportunities Act streamline the rules for African exports.

Pillar 3: Food supply and hunger
Pillar 3 aims to increase food supply and reduce hunger across the region by raising smallholder productivity and improving responses to food emergencies.

The Pillar focuses on the chronically food insecure, and on populations vulnerable to and affected by various crises and emergencies in order to ensure that the CAADP agenda simultaneously achieves the agricultural growth agenda and Millennium Development Goal targets for addressing poverty and hunger (MDG 1 aims to cut extreme poverty and hunger in half by 2015).

This focus draws together the central elements of the CAADP vision to ensure that growing agricultural productivity, well-integrated markets and expanded purchasing power of vulnerable groups combine to eradicate hunger, malnutrition and poverty.

Pillar 3 objectives
The objectives of Pillar 3 are to:
-improve domestic production and marketing
-facilitate regional trade in food staples, and
-build household productivity and assets.
What's happening in CAADP Pillar 3?
Regional Enhanced Livelihoods for Pastoral Areas (RELPA), funded by USAID ($19.8 million). This Horn of Africa programme for enhancing livelihoods of pastoralists across three countries has been launched.

Regional Food Security and Risk Management Programme for Eastern and Southern Africa (REFORM), funded by the European Union (€10 million). This programme is mostly capacity building (i.e., skills transfer, technical studies, documentation of best practice, information sharing, policy dialogue, etc.).

Making Markets Work for the Poor: Enhancing Food Security and Productivity Growth in Eastern and Southern Africa (MMWP), funded by World Bank/DFID-UK ($3.8 million). This project involves a three-year programme of practical analysis, policy outreach, consensus building, and capacity strengthening to promote the goals of national and regional food security, poverty reduction, and agricultural productivity growth.

Improved Regional Trade in Food Staples (RTFS), total $5 million, with start-up funding by the World Bank. This programme of work aims to assemble spatial evidence on existing regional production and trade in food staples and to develop predictive analytical tools that will enable spatial mapping of the outcomes resulting from common natural and policy shocks.

Cassava Transformation in Southern Africa (CATISA), total $2 million, with start up funded by SIDA. The CATISA project aims to analyse and help accelerate cassava commercialisation in Southern Africa in order to help improve food security in the region.

Home-Grown School Feeding (HGSF), funded by the World Food Programme and DFID-UK ($25 million). NEPAD, WFP and the Millennium Hunger Task Force (MHTF) launched a pilot Home-Grown School Feeding and Health Programme designed to link school feeding to agricultural development through the purchase and use of locally and domestically produced food.

Progress so far:

The Secretariat facilitated and coordinated the final technical review and validation processes for the CAADP Pillar 3 Framework (May 2008) on increasing food supply and reducing hunger. The framework is ready for widespread distribution and will have to take the due process for political endorsement by the AU Heads of State and Government.

Investment Initiative: Similar in scope to the Pillar 1 Strategic Investment Programme, the Pillar 3 Investment Initiative will develop programmes to target food insecurity. Created with support from the Millennium Development Goal Thematic Group, it will strengthen country roundtable processes.

Pillar 4: Agricultural research
Pillar 4 aims to improve agricultural research and systems in order to disseminate appropriate new technologies. In addition, by working closely with partners like DFID UK's Research into Use (RIU) programme, Pillar 4 also aims to boost the support available to help farmers to adopt such new options.

Progress so far:

The adoption of the Framework for African Agricultural Productivity, prepared under the leadership of the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa, has allowed a broad group of development partners to start scaling up support to science and technology programmes at the regional and national levels.

This support includes funding for the sub-regional research organisations such as the Conseil pour la Recherche Agricoles en Afrique in West Africa and the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in East and Central Africa, as well as national programmes in Ghana, Mali, Senegal and Kenya. The launching of the Research Into Use Programme by the UK is also a major activity under this pillar. Partners in Support of CAADP initiative

Another important aspect of CAADP Pillar 4's work to boost agricultural research and ensure that the results are disseminated is that it ties in strongly with the DFID UK Research Into Use (RIU) Programme. Specifically, RIU focuses on ensuring that research results are put into use in the field, and on outscaling and upscaling workable options that can improve farmers' lives.

The Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA, which leads Pillar 4) and the CAADP Secretariat (led by Professor Mkandawire), have therefore worked hard to develop strong links with RIU. Research Into Use was, for example, officially launched at the FARA General Assembly in 2007 with full support from FARA - led by World Food Prize winner Professor Monty Jones.

Research Into Use has reciprocated, by strongly supporting both FARA and CAADP in return - by funding events, providing training, and helping CAADP to develop the key partnerships used to produce the CAADP brand and this website.

A good, concrete example of the ways that FARA, CAADP, and RIU work to boost the development and use of practical new agricultural options is the Partners in Support of CAADP booth at the CGIAR annual general meeting. This large booth gives CAADP, FARA, RIU, and a range of representatives from other partners, the opportunity to professionally showcase their work and achievements to other key players, decision makers and potential new partners - at what is known as the major annual event in the sustainable agriculture calendar

Aid Effectiveness:

The operationalization of the CAADP is very much enhanced by the participation of the various countries involved. Aid effectiveness is synonymous with concrete arrangements and implementation of the set out goals by countries when aid is received. African participating countries in the CAADP programme do recognize that accountability and efficient government are the necessary direction to be taken for economic prosperity of the continent, thus allowing themselves to be guided by development experts through CAADP.

Since CAADP emerged in 2003, development partners have worked together closely to support its processes and the development of the CAADP Pillars. This collaborative effort has resulted in a significant harmonisation of donor support for CAADP activities and investment programmes.

NEPAD, the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and the African Union (AU), together with a number of donors and African governments, worked to further harmonise support. The result is the CAADP Multi-donor Trust Fund, hosted at the World Bank. This will channel financial support to CAADP processes and investments.

In brief, the CAADP Multi-donor Trust Fund is a flexible yet systematic, efficient and reliable way to:
-Harmonise priorities
-Allow economies of scale
-Increase the efficiency and effectiveness of financial resources
-Target specific gaps in financing, capacity and technology
-Facilitate partnerships and coalition building among African institutions, partners and donors
-Complement existing resources mobilised around CAADP Pillars and other thematic priorities

Capacity Development:

CAADP is very unique and epitomizes aid effectiveness in the sense that the ownership and implementation of the activities of the unit is very sustainable. Participating countries take ownership of the projects carried out by CAADP as well as acquire skills to run the projects. Also, it very much recognizes the notion of capacity building through strategic frame work before funds are made available. This is unlike some north-south cooperation in which aid is made available without arrangements in place to make better use of the fund.

CAADP encompasses skills development, knowledge fair and technology transfer for the development of Agriculture and its practitioners on one hand, and the involvement of the various African governments in the programme.

Capacity development benefits of CAADP is located is evidence in over all objectives of improving domestic production and marketing facilitate regional trade in food staples, and build household productivity and assets. This is very evident in the results achieved so far through the four pillars of CAADP.

Duration:

2003 - 2015

Budget (Optional):

6-10% annual national budget of each participating country

Name of Primary Contact

Person: Professor Richard Mkandawire

Title of Primary Contact Person:

Coordinator

City:

Midrand